1. Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)
The goal of ABA intervention is to enable him or her to function as independently and successfully as possible in a variety of environments.
Behaviour analysis is a natural science of behavior that was originally described by B.F. Skinner in the 1930’s. The principles and methods of behavior analysis have been applied effectively in many arenas. For example, methods that they use the principle of positive reinforcement to strengthen a behavior by arranging for it to be followed by something of value have been used to develop a wide range of skills in learners with and without disabilities.
Some ABA techniques involve instruction that is directed by adults in highly structured fashion, while others make use of the learner’s natural interests and follow his or her initiations. Still others teach skills in the context of ongoing activities. All skills are broken down into small steps or components, and learners are provided many repeated opportunities to learn and practice skills in a variety of settings, with abundant positive reinforcement. The goals of intervention as well as the specific types of instructions and reinforcers used are customised to the strengths and needs of the individual learner. Performance is measured continuously by direct observation, and intervention is modified if the data show that the learner is not making satisfactory progress.
Derived from ABA principles and the work of renowned psychologist B. F. Skinner, ABA-VB is a way of studying observable behaviour through operant conditioning, identifying ways to modify behaviour as well as tracking essential learning skills in early development. It works particularly well with children with minimal or no speech abilities.
3. Speech and Language Therapy (SLT)
The communication problems of individuals with autism vary to some degree and may depend on the intellectual and social development of the individual. Some may be completely unable to speak whereas others have well-developed vocabularies and can speak at length on topics that interest them. Any attempt at therapy must begin with an individual assessment of the child’s language abilities by a trained speech and language pathologist.
Though some individuals with autism have little or no problem with the pronunciation of words, most have difficulty effectively using language. Even those children who have no articulation problems exhibit difficulties in the pragmatic use of language such as knowing what to say, how to say it, and when to say it as well as how to interact socially with people. Many who speak often say things that have no content or information. Others repeat verbatim what they have heard (echolalia) or repeat irrelevant scripts they have memorized. Some individuals with autism speak in a high-pitched voice or use robotic sounding speech.
Two pre-skills for language development are joint attention and social initiation. Joint attention involves an eye gaze and referential gestures such as pointing, showing and giving. Children with autism lack social initiation such as questioning, make fewer utterance and fail to use language as a means of social initiation. Though no one treatment is found to successfully improve communication, the best treatment begins early during the preschool years, is individually tailored, and involves parents along with professionals. The goal is always to improve useful communication. For some verbal communication is realistic, for others gestured communication or communication through a symbol system such as picture boards can be attempted. Periodic evaluations must be made to find the best approaches and to reestablish goals for the individual child.
4. Occupational Therapy (OT)
Occupational Therapy can benefit a person with autism by attempting to improve the quality of life for the individual. The aim is to maintain, improve, or introduce skills that allow an individual to participate as independently as possible in meaningful life activities. Coping skills, fine motor skills, play skills, self help skills, and socialisation are all targeted areas to be addressed. Through occupational therapy methods, a person with autism can be aided both at home and within the school setting by teaching activities including dressing, feeding, toilet training, grooming, social skills, fine motor and visual skills that assist in writing and scissor use, gross motor coordination to help the individual ride a bike or walk properly, and visual perceptual skills needed for reading and writing.
Occupational therapy is usually part of a collaborative effort of medical and educational professionals, as well as parents and other family members. Through such collaboration a person with autism can move towards the appropriate social, play and learning skills needed to function successfully in everyday life.
5. Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
PECS is a type of augmentative and alternative communication technique where individuals with little or no verbal ability learn to communicate using picture cards. Children use these pictures to “vocalise” a desire, observation, or feeling. These pictures can be purchased in a manualised book, or they can be made at home using images from newspapers, magazines or other books. Since some people with autism tend to learn visually, this type of communication technique has been shown to be effective at improving independent communication skills, leading in some cases to gains in spoken language.
Images may be obtained through magazines, photos, or other media. In Phase one, a communication trainer works with the child and their caregivers to help decide which images would be most motivating. For example, images of food may elicit the strongest response. Cards are then created (or provided through a pre-made book) with those images, and the trainer and the caregiver work with the child to help him or her discover that, by handing over the card, they can get the desired object. In Phase two, the caregiver then moves farther away from the child when showing the picture, so that the child must actually come over and hand over the card to receive the food reward. This process engages the child’s ability to seek and obtain another person’s attention. In this way, a full vocabulary and methods for using these new words are taught to the affected individual.
In later phases, children are given more than one image so that they must decide which to use when requesting an item, and throughout the process the number of cards grows and thus the child’s ‘vocabulary’ also increases. Over time, the child may develop the ability to use sentences, including phrases like “I want” to start off the sentence, and even use descriptors like “large” or “red”. Throughout the process, which may take weeks, months or years, the caregiver gives constant feedback to the child. It is thought that by allowing children to express themselves non-verbally, the children are less frustrated and non-desirable behaviour including tantrums is reduced.
6. Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC)
AAC includes all forms of communication that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas. Everyone uses these communication strategies when we make facial expressions or gestures, point to pictures, or write. People with severe speech or language problems may use AAC strategies to supplement existing speech or replace speech that is not functional. Special augmentative aids, such as picture and symbol communication boards and electronic devices, are available to help people express themselves. This may increase social interaction, school/work performance, and feelings of self-worth.
AAC users should not stop using speech if they are able to do so. The AAC aids and devices are used to enhance their communication, not to replace or inhibit their existing skills. These tools are available to help people express themselves. This may increase social interaction with others, support academic performance, and enhance feelings of self-worth.
7. Sensory Integration Therapy (SIT)
The goal of Sensory Integration Therapy is to facilitate the development of the nervous system’s ability to process sensory input in a more typical way. Through integration the brain pulls together sensory messages and forms coherent information upon which to act. SIT uses neurosensory and neuromotor exercises to improve the brain’s ability to repair itself. When successful, it can improve attention, concentration, listening, comprehension, balance, coordination and impulse control in some children.
Sensory Integration is the process through which the brain organises and interprets external stimuli such as movement, touch, smell, sight and sound. Individuals with autism often exhibit symptoms of Sensory Integration Dysfunction (SID) making it difficult for them to process information brought in through the senses. Children can have mild, moderate or severe SID deficits manifesting in either increased (hypersensitivity) or decreased (hyposensitivity) to touch, sound, movement, etc. For example, a hypersensitive child may avoid being touched whereas a hyposensitive child will seek the stimulation of feeling objects and may enjoy being in tight places.
The evaluation and treatment of basic sensory integrative processes in individuals with autism are usually performed by an occupational and/or physical therapist. A specific program will be planned to provide sensory stimulation to the child, often in conjunction with purposeful muscle activities, to improve how the brain processes and organises sensory information. The therapy often requires activities that consist of full body movements utilising different types of equipment. It is believed that SIT does not teach higher-level skills, but enhances the sensory processing abilities thus allowing the child to acquire them.
TEACCH (Training and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children) is a special education program that is tailored to the child’s individual needs based on general guidelines. It dates back to the 1960’s when doctors Eric Schopler, R.J. Reichler and Ms Margaret Lansing were working with children with autism and constructed a means to gain control of the teaching setup so that independence could be fostered in the children. What makes the TEACCH approach unique is that the focus is on the design of the physical, social and communicating environment. The environment is structured to accommodate the difficulties a child with autism has while training them to perform in acceptable and appropriate ways.
Building on the fact that individuals with autism are often visual learners, TEACCH brings visual clarity to the learning process in order to build receptiveness, understanding, organisation and independence. The children work in a highly structured environment which may include physical organization of furniture, clearly delineated activity areas, picture-based schedules and work systems, and instructional clarity.
It is believed that structure for individuals with autism provides a strong base and framework for learning. Though TEACCH does not specifically focus on social and communication skills as fully as other therapies it can be used along with such therapies to make them more effective.
Helps autistics with verbal pronunciation, communication rules, conversation skills and understanding concepts.
A comprehensive behavioural early intervention approach for children with autism ages 12 to 48 months that defines the skills to be taught at any given time and a set of teaching procedures used to deliver this content.